Immunology department performs a broad spectrum of laboratory tests in clinical diagnostics and immunology. Hundreds of immunological analyzes are used to evaluate the immune response to autoantibodies, protein anomalies and microbial agents. The basis of immunological analysis is the antigen-antibody reaction. This reaction based on antigen-antibody complexes which are determined by direct and indirect methods.
The activity of the immune system varies depending on age and nutrition. The age, immune system condition and malnutrition should be considered when evaluating immunological analysis.
Autoantibodies are the antibodies that the organism synthesizes against its cells by the immune system. Clinical symptoms may vary depending on organs.
The main methods used in immunology are ELISA, electrochemiluminescence, agglutination, immunofluorescence.
Agglutination reaction occurs as a result of the formation of an antigen-antibody complex.
Quantitative and qualitative aggregation tests are performed in our laboratory. In quantitative tests the result is titrated.
The ELISA method is based on measuring the fermentative reaction associated with immune complexes. The enzyme may link with antigen or antibody.
Electrochemiluminescence– based on the measurement of luminescence caused by electrochemical reaction in the solution. In this case, the electrons separated from the electrochemical reagents react with luminescent substances.
Primary (direct) immunofluorescence uses a single, primary antibody, chemically linked to a fluorophore. The primary antibody recognizes the target molecule (antigen) and binds to a specific region called the epitope. The attached fluorophore can be detected via fluorescent microscopy, which, depending on the messenger used, will emit a specific wavelength of light once excited.
Secondary (indirect) immunofluorescence uses two antibodies; the unlabeled first (primary) antibody specifically binds the target molecule and the secondary antibody, which carries the fluorophore, recognizes the primary antibody and binds to it. Multiple secondary antibodies can bind a single primary antibody. This provides signal amplification by increasing the number of fluorophore molecules per antigen. This protocol is more complex and time-consuming than the primary (or direct) protocol above, but allows more flexibility because a variety of different secondary antibodies and detection techniques can be used for a given primary antibody.